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Risk factors known as black-eyed peas in the U. A human diet containing a to their production in animal cells, bacterial large amount of certain phytosterols e. In addition, CpMV acts campesterol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmas- as an intrinsic, natural adjuvant to the ani- terol has been shown to lower total serum mal virus antigens, since it provokes an blood cholesterol and low-density lipopro- immune response itself. For species strain CP4 of soil bacteria. CP4 example, high-oleic oil soybeans result EPSPS is essential for the functioning of that when the GmFad gene which codes for bacteriums metabolism biochemical path- native 12 desaturase enzyme is inserted way.

CP4 EPSPS happens to be unaffected and expressed in traditional varieties of soy- by glyphosate-containing or sulfosate-con- beans. Or from another eaten by certain insects e. However, if eaten the process of selfaggregation selfassem- by a mammal, the Cry1A b protein is bly. Cry1F Protein One of the cry crystal like Crossing Over The reciprocal exchange of proteins, it is a protoxin that, when eaten by material between chromosomes that occurs the European corn borer, southwestern corn during meiosis.

The event is responsible for borer, black cutworm, and fall armyworm, is genetic recombination. The process involves toxic to those insects. Cry9C Protein One of the cry crystal-like CRW Refers to one type of corn maize that proteins, it is a protoxin that, when eaten by has been made resistant to the depradations the European corn borer, southwestern corn- of corn rootworm larvae Diabrotica vir- borer, black cutworm, and some species of gifera virgifera via genetic engineering.

See armyworm, is toxic to those insects. Bacillus thuringiensis B. Cry crystal like proteins are corn rootworm larvae Diabrotica virgifera. See also mass. C crop production. Typi- Cyclodextrin A macrocyclic doughnut- cally used to refer to a population of the cells shaped carbohydrate ring produced enzy- of a single species or a single strain.

A matically from starch. The external surface medium which contains only one specic is hydrophobic while the interior is hydro- organism e. The hole of the doughnut is a pure culture. A culture may be preserved large enough to accommodate guest mole- stored alive by freezing, drying in which cules. Uses include solubilization, separa- the cells go dormant , subculturing on an tion, and stabilization of molecules in the agar medium, or other methods. The chemical blocks peptide bond The medium usually consists of a complex formation by binding to the large ribosomal mixture of organic and inorganic materials.

For example, the classic culture growth Cyclooxygenase Abbreviated COX, it is an medium used for bacteria consists of nutrients enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to required by that bacteria plus agar to solid- prostaglandins in the human body. There are ify or semisolidify the nutrient containing two forms of cyclooxygenase: COX-1,. Hoffmann-LaRoche late in the lungs. The drug is used to prevent an as cystic brosis.

These units are T lymphocytes to activate certain genes important in biochemistry in that disulde within those T lymphocytes that trigger the bridges represent one important way in rejection process. In , Thomas Eisner which the conformation of a protein is main- reported that the mold Tolypocladium ina- tained in the active form.

Cystine bridges tum, from which cyclosporin is harvested, lock the structure of the proteins in which prefers a natural wild substrate of a they occur in place by disallowing certain deceased dung beetle. During , it was types of molecule chain movement. When discovered that cyclosporin inhibits growth the disulde bond is with a free cysteine i. See also cysteine is known as a thiol group. Incorporated eties of soybean plant, that confers on those in many proteins, it possesses a sulfhydryl particular soybean varieties some resis- group SH that makes cysteine a mild tance to the soybean cyst nematode.

Discov- reducing agent. Cysteine can cross-link with ered and developed during the s by another cysteine located on the same or on Jamal Faghihi, John Ferris, Virginia Ferris, a different polypeptide chain to form disul- and Rick Vierling. High levels of cysteine Cytochrome Any of the complex protein res- content in certain genetically engineered piratory pigments enzymes occurring corn maize kernels have been shown to within plant and animal cells.

They usually. Cyto- kocytes to adhere to the selectins, then leave chromes are involved in the handing off of the bloodstream by squeezing between electrons to each other in a stepwise fashion. Cytokines are In the process of handing off, other events exemplied by the interferons.

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Essentially, the enzyme renders fat- Cytolysis The dissolution of cells, particularly soluble hydrophobic molecules water solu- by destruction of their surface membranes. This enzyme is different groups of people in varying being investigated for its potential as a cata- amounts, depending on their behavior. CMV involved in the metabolism breakdown of produces a febrile fever-causing illness that certain pharmaceuticals.

Those pharmaceu- is usually mild in nature but can become ticals include some sedatives, antihyperten- retinitis eye infection. CMV can be treated sives, the antihistamine terfenadine, and the to halt life- and sight-threatening infection immunosuppressant cyclosporin. See also in immunocompromised patients i. Syntex or Foscarnet, a compound devel- Cytokines A large class of glycoproteins sim- oped by Astra Pharmaceuticals. In , ilar to lymphokines but produced by non- Stephen E.

Epstein found that latent CMV l y m p h o cy t i c c e l l s s u c h a s n o r m a l may cause changes in artery wall cells that aid macrophages, broblasts, keratinocytes, and clogging of arteries in adults especially fol- a variety of transformed cell lines. They par- lowing balloon angioplasty. Cytoplasmic DNA i. These nuclear DNA is. In general, the mental unit one of the bases of nucleic acids. The cytotoxic T cells also Cytotoxic Poisonous to cells.

For 15 Desaturase One of the desaturases example, when livestock are fed more lysine enzymes. The excreted. DNA by a single-stranded invader in the reaction catalyzed by RecA protein. The other virus provides the of owering plants within the genus Narcis- necessary molecular machinery that the rst sus. Native to southern Europe and northern virus lacks.

Africa, they are the source of golden rice Defensins A class of peptides that inhibits cer- and the Alzheimers disease treatment com- tain fungal diseases. These are produced as pound galantamine hydrobromide. See also a natural defense by some plants.

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In addition to protecting the plant from Daidzin The -glycoside form isomer in certain diseases, the alfAFP also inhibits a which glucose is attached to the molecule at fungal disease known as potato early dying the seven position of the A ring of the isoa- complex also called Verticillium wilt , vone known as daidzein aglycone form. Dalton A unit of mass very nearly equal to that Degenerate Codons Two or more codons that of a hydrogen atom precisely equal to code for the same amino acid. For example, 1. Since in this case more oped the atomic theory of matter.

It is 1. When those mole- denaturation process such as heating the cules are the components of vegetable DNA solution. Deinococcus radio- analyze DNA fragments sequences after durans was discovered in in some that DNA is rst denatured. This methodol- canned meat. See Dendrimers Polymers i. The size of a growing due to addition of more atoms in deleted material can vary from a single a repeating pattern until that branching is nucleotide to sections containing a number stopped by the physical constraint of con- of genes.

Delta 12 on their exterior surface to which genetic desaturase 12 is involved in the synthesis material e. Dendrimers bear- thesize manufacture polyunsaturated fatty ing such genetic material have shown the acids e. See also animal cells. Dendrites Highly branched structures that Denaturation The loss of the native conforma- extend from the nucleus of neurons to syn- tion of a macromolecule resulting, for apse junctions with other neurons e.

The primary purpose of ity or basicity changes, chemical treatment, dendrites is to process signals that are gen- etc. Neuron e. Denitrication Reduction of nitrate to nitrites Thus, those ribosomes make the proteins that or into gaseous oxides of nitrogen, or even are crucial to learning and memory e. D drites. See also NEU- ium growing in some grains e. The chemical located in the mucous membranes of the building blocks molecules of which genes mouth and genital areas, that permits the i.

Every body, even when there are no cuts or abra- inherited characteristic has its origin some- sions through those mucous membranes. The DNA mol- in a repeating pattern until that branching is ecule is a linear polymer made up of deox- stopped e. In the of the sugar 2-deoxyribose, phosphate, and absence of physical constraints, dendritic a purine or pyrimidine base.

The bases are polymers can continue branching and grow- linked by a phosphate group, joining the 3 ing until they form a complete hollow position of one sugar to the 5 position of sphere. Such spheres are potentially useful for the next sugar. Most molecules are double- protecting and delivering a fragile pharma- stranded and anti-parallel, resulting in a ceutical molecule to specic tissue s within right-handed helix structure that is held the body. DNA is the carrier of genetic. Dextro means right. One was destroyed by autoimmune disease. Desferroxamine Manganese An iron chelat- Research during the s indicated that ing agent i.

The molecule also acts as an hSOD glycerols versus typical triacylglycerols , is mimic by capturing harmful oxygen free radicals in the blood before they damage the less likely to result in it being deposited as walls of blood vessels. Recent research indi- body fat adipose tissue.

Dialysis The separation of low molecular Desulfovibrio A genus of bacteria that weight compounds from high molecular reduces sulfate to H2S hydrogen sulde. Fre- organic molecules. Not a strict autotroph quently utilized to remove salts and biolog- because CO2 cannot be used as a sole carbon ical effectors such as nicotinamide adenine source. Commonly used membranes and bacteria as an energy storage reservoir have a molecular weight cutoff threshold analogous to fat in humans. Consists of glu- of around 10, Daltons, but other mem- cose residues, joined almost exclusively by brane pore sizes are available.

See also HOL- alpha-1,6 linkages. D stem cells, etc. Disulde Bond An important type of covalent Digestion within organisms The enzyme- bond formed between two sulfur atoms of dif- enhanced hydrolysis breakdown of major ferent cysteines in a protein. Disulde bonds linkages, bridges contribute to holding pro- nutrients food in the gastrointestinal sys- teins together and also help provide the inter- tem to yield their building-block compo- nal structure conformation of the protein. COLI H7. In contrast to the prot U. The consortiums purpose is to fur- organism in which the cells of the organism ther the use of molecular diversity as a tool have two copies of each gene.

When this in drug design, and in the study of mutating. Those sequences are then e. The enzyme seals joins the ends of by the spot to which it hybridizes. The process is accom- attached themselves to the DNA molecules plished by catalyzing the addition of deox- backbone at all possible locations on that yribonucleotide residues to the free 3- DNA molecule. This chemical reaction is revers- nile development after organism reaches ible and, hence, DNA polymerase also func- adulthood. DNA methylation of cell genes tions as an exonuclease. DNA segments within a chromosome. The presence of this or been derived.

DNase I is produced and secreted scene to the person e. DNA pro- pancreas of animals. It has optimal activity ling involves the use of RFLP restriction i. See also identify the specic sequence of bases i. DHA aids optimal or innocence. Biological evidence may brain and nervous system development in include, among other things, blood, hair, nail human infants, and is required for optimal fragments, skin, and sperm. Research indi- Double Helix The natural coiled conformation cates that consumption of docosahexanoic of two complementary, antiparallel DNA acid also helps to reduce the risk of heart chains.

This structure was rst put forward disease by lowering blood pressure and by Watson and Crick in See also depression via its effect in the brain. Domain of a chromosome May refer either to Down Regulating Phrase referring to regula- a discrete structural entity dened as a region tory sequences, chemical compounds e. Because of these factors, a large Dominant Allele Discovered by Gregor Men- base of knowledge about Drosophila genet- del in the s, this gene produces the same ics has been accumulated by the worlds sci- phenotype when it is heterozygous as it does entic community.

For example, of the when it is homozygous i. See also ogous gene in the Drosophila genome.

Definition Sources

Donor Junction The junction between the left Duplex The double-helical structure of DNA 5 end of an exon and the right 3 end of an deoxyribonucleic acid. Late Genes T h o s e g e n e s t r a n - immune system via that animals GALT scribed early in a bacteriophage-mediated gut-associated lymphoid tissues. These infection process as compared to those genes edible vaccines are derived from transgenic transcribed some time later.

May require dif- plants grains, tubers, fruits, etc. Late Proteins During viral infection, molecule s into the eggs it lays. An organic tors. In so doing, earthworms make such ions for activity. Earthworm Effector A class of usually small molecules tunnels also help aerate soil, which encour- that regulates the activity of a specic protein ages healthy plant root systems. See also e. The E. That between organisms and their environments. Effector molecules may be cells present within adult bodies of organ- activators cause an increase in the enzymes isms, that can be differentiated via chemical catalytic activity or inhibitors cause a.

The A special class of effector, known as an human body converts linolenic acid e. ELAM-1 molecules then help leu- membrane, which is of the tyrosine kinase kocytes leave the bloodstream to ght the class. When free EGF comes in contact with infection.

There EGF white blood cells that engulf pathogens stimulates growth or division of the cell via which catalyzes the cleavage breakdown of ras protein and ras gene. The EGF receptor specic proteins that function to provide and receptors in general is like a butler who elasticity to certain tissues. May be indi- allows the EGF a guest to enter the cell rectly responsible for some autoimmune dis- home. When a-1 antitrypsin anti-elastase efcacy Eicosanoids A group of chemical compounds is reduced via smoke , the now-unrestrained which the human body synthesizes manu- excess elastase destroys alveolar walls in the factures from arachidonic acid, docosahex- lungs by digesting elastic bers and other anoic acid, and other starting materials.

One connective tissue proteins. For example, the COX-1 etc. The technique uses beams of gene s cannot depart the cell. The cell then electrons instead of light rays. Because of incorporates some of the new genetic the physics involved, beams of electrons per- material genes into its genetic complement mit much greater magnication than is pos- genome , and creates whatever product sible with a light microscope.

Electron i. The term immunosorbent assay hence the acronym is usually applied to large ions of colloidal which can readily measure less than a nan- particles dispersed in water. The most impor- ogram g of a protein. This assay is tant use of electrophoresis currently is in more sensitive than simple immunoassay the analysis of proteins, and then a technique tests because one of the two antibodies known as gel electrophoresis is used.

Since used to bind and quantitate measure the the proportion of proteins varies widely in proteins antigen, based on two concurrent different diseases, electrophoresis can be epitopes within the protein, is attached to an used for diagnostic purposes. Electrophoresis, enzyme. The enzyme can rapidly convert an through agarose or other gel matrices, is a added colorless substrate into a colored common way to separate, identify, and product or a nonuorescent substrate into an purify plasmid DNA, DNA fragments result- intensely uorescent product thus enabling ing from digestion of DNA with restriction ner quantitation.

In , the U. Ellagic acid is naturally electroporation. Electroporation, also called present in strawberries, the pomegranate electroporesis or electropermeabilization, Punica granatum , etc. After the the fertilized embryo resulting from a wide gene s enter the cell via the temporarily cross between two nonsexually compatible created micropores, the electrical pulse plant species to grow and mature into a seed.

In these Endocrine Glands Glands that secrete their stages a single highly specialized cell, the products hormones into the blood, which egg, is transformed into a complex many- then carries them to their specic target celled organism resembling its parents. See organs. Emulsion A stable dispersion of one liquid in a Endocrine glands are found in some inver- second, immiscible i.

Certain ingredients e. These help control -conglycinin protein help enable a greater long-term bodily processes, such as growth, content of the rst liquid to be dispersed in lactation, sex cycles, and metabolic adjust- the second liquid. The endocrine system and the nervous -conglycinin protein make a given emul- system are interdependent and often referred sion more stable i. There is currently great interest among which means opposite. Enantiomers are a scientists in the potential use of such hor- pair of nonidentical, mirror-image mole- mones in the control of destructive insects.

See cules. This gives Endocytosis Also called receptor-mediated rise to an asymmetric molecule that can exist endocytosis. The import of substances e. The entity of these molecules is known as enantiomers. It is one that compounds two possible enantiomers. For e. Endergonic Reaction A chemical reaction with It is a route by which certain proteins a positive standard free energy change i. An heat energy-requiring delivered to the cells lysosomes.

For example,. This route is also a means exploited by rium that lives inside vascular tissues of certain viruses and toxins to gain entry into plants in spaces between plant cells. At least cells through the otherwise impervious cell one company has incorporated the gene for a membranes e.

Disorders of thuringiensis into an endophyte to confer endocytosis can lead to disease states e. When endo- high cholesterol levels in the blood of people phyte-infested fescue grass is fed to cattle, E whose low-density lipoprotein receptors are sheep, horses, or rabbits, it is generally toxic impaired. Drugs e. RF for greater efcacy. The pancreas, lung tissues, etc. That is, the enzyme is Endorphins Discovered during the s by capable of cutting a sugar-to-sugar bond U. For example, runners and long- of the enzyme. This is in contrast to an distance walkers achieve something of a exoglycosidase, which must cut away at the high due to endorphins released during polymer from the outside, i.

In grains Endometrium The lining of the uterus. To those neighboring blood vessels dilate and kill spores, temperatures above boiling are the bodys blood pressure is lowered, and two usually needed. For this, pressure cookers compounds, prostacyclin and Von Willebrand and autoclaves are required. Endospores have factor, that prevent blood clotting. It is only released when tein discovered by Judah Folkman. In con- the cell is ruptured. It can cause, among cert with angiostatin, it causes certain cancer other things, septic shock and tissue damage.

This Endothelial Cells These are the at, sort of is one reason why pharmaceuticals must be plate-shaped cells that line the surface of all prepared in a sterile environment. For example, the genes coding for antilym- Endothelial cells are packed much tighter phoma binding sites from a rat have been together in the capillaries that provide blood inserted into human antibody-producing to the brain.

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This tighter packing limits the cells to yield rat antigen binding sites size and kind of molecules that can pass into mounted on human antibody stems. Enkephalins A class of hormones produced in Endothelin A peptide that causes arteries to the brain that act as natural painkillers. Dis- contract which consequently causes blood covered by John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz pressure to increase. Although all up agricultural vegetation in order to pre- enzymes are proteins, they may, and usually serve it. It is carried out for 12 weeks, using do, contain additional nonprotein compo- either indigenous microorganisms e.

Enzyme Denaturation The loss of enzyme When indigenous microorganisms are used, catalytic activity due to loss of the correct E Lactobacillus spp. Denatur- microorganisms present, and heat is generated ation may be caused by factors such as expo- by the microorganisms within the vegetative sure to heat and organic solvents, mass optimum temperature is C, degradation of the enzyme molecule by pro- which is F.

Lactic acid produced by teases, oxygen, and acid or alkaline pH. Initially a repres- Enterohemorrhagic E. This binding inhibits transcription to strains of E. The toxin produced by these When present, the inducer molecule binds to particular E. The Enterotoxin The category i. For example, the thesis. Its repressive action is mitigated serotype of Escherichia coliform bacteria derepressed by the inducer molecule.

On a molecular level that is not itself used up in the reaction. It is a repressor molecule which could be, e. Each enzyme is cic repressor protein that is present in the highly specic with regard to the type of cell. This specic catalytic activity and its which is called the operator region. It is in control by other biochemical constituents are this region where the synthesis of mRNA is of primary importance in the physiological initiated.

The repressor roadblock thus. See also made in the bone marrow. The membranous cellular tissue that they reside. They kill parasites too large to covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity be phagocytized by secreting substances that of an animal body. It serves to enclose and kill the parasites hookworms, trichinosis, protect the other tissues, to produce secretions etc. The production. High concentrations of EPSP Synthase Enolpyruvyl-shikimate phos- epidermal growth factor are found in human phate synthase. An enzyme produced by vir- tears. EGF was discovered by Stanley tually all plants and internally transported Cohen.

The episome can replicate either sate-containing herbicide. Additional resis- as an autonomous unit or as one integrated tance to glyphosate-containing and into the host genome. The F fertility factor sulfosate-containing herbicides can be con- is an episome. In , Burt D. Ensley and cowork- produced by a fungus, that is toxic to animals ers at Amgen discovered a way to genetically and humans produced by the fungus Clav- engineer E.

Ergotamine is an cose starting material. Humans Escherichia coliform H7 The particular whose bodies are decient in vitamin A are strain serotype of Escherichia coliform especially vulnerable to ergotism ergot E. Children are more susceptible to Erwinia caratovora A species of bacteria that E. Stimulated by infected cattle are slaughtered and people the protein erythropoietin. Some varieties of E. In , researchers at increase the number of red blood cells. Other research E. The most rumen. They are pheny- cancer, uterine cancer, etc.

A cell char- donic acid, and docosahexanoic acid. If acterized by compartmentalization by humans and other higher animals do not con- membranes of its extensive internal struc- sume enough essential fatty acids per day, tures; or an organism made up of such cells. Eucaryotic cells e. Most eucaryotic organisms can- foods required for consuming organisms not survive temperatures greater than F life, growth, or tissue repair, and cannot be 55C. However, one called the Pompeii synthesized by that organism. Estrogen This belief became popular in a number of causes proliferation of breast tissue cells countries during the early 20th century.

Mar- and is also responsible for the development garet Sanger, founder of Americas Planned of female secondary sex characteristics e. Research indicates called for more children from the t, less that lack of estrogen e. Based upon Charles Darwins. It coordinates drug licensing and the haploid chromosome number. For exam- safety matters throughout the nations of the ple, a diploid possesses twice the haploid EU.

In doing so, they can act as vectors i. Plant varieties or materials e. ECB control can be patentability by the European Patent Con- effected by some of the following methods: vention. In , the European Parliament removed that exclusion. Incorporating a protoxin gene from Germany-based agency of the European Bacillus thuringiensis B. The European Patent IPM , farmers can utilize: Ofce originally did not allow a plant or animal breed to be patented, whereas its 1. Corn possessing Bacillus thuringiensis U. Patent and B.

The parasitic Euplectrus comstockki e. When neered by man. In , the European Par- that wasps venom is injected into ECB liament removed that exclusion, and in , larva, it stops the larva from molting the European Patent Court issued a ruling and thus maturing which caused the European Patent Conven- 3. Additional methods, alone or in con- tion to allow patents on novel plants, thus cert with above making the two patent systems compatible. Its secretariat is in Paris, France. See heat.

Event Refers to each instance of a genetically Exoglycosidase An enzyme that hydrolyzes engineered organism. For example, the same cuts only a terminal end bond in the oli- gene inserted by man into a given plant gosaccharide molecular branch es of a genome at two different locations loci glycoprotein. Alternatively, two dif- ferent genes inserted into the same locus of Exon The segment of a eucaryotic gene that is two same-species plants would also be con- transcribed into an mRNA messenger RNA sidered two different events. Generally molecule; it codes for a specic domain of speaking, the worlds regulatory agencies a protein.

DNA dam- selective breeding by man. The region of the dimer is cut Exotoxin Proteins toxins produced by cer- out and then repaired. Diphtheria toxin was the rst one dis- tain immune system cells that can kill brain covered. Other exotoxins cause botulism, cells when in excess e. Exo- strokes, which cause the release of too many toxins are generally more potent and specic. See also expression e. Number of progeny born alive tags utilized to label a given gene i.

Phys- E 3. Carcass lean meat vs. Functions of the ents of average genetic value. For example, labeled genes are at least initially a boar male pig possessing an EPD of 4 inferred from known function C. The explo- effect of a gene is realized in the phenotype. The strand elongation lengthening that occurs plant cell then heals itself reseals the hole in a polymerization reaction. Generally, for which the newly introduced gene codes.

Express To translate the cells genetic infor- Extremophilic Bacteria Bacteria that live and mation stored in the DNA gene into a spe- reproduce outside either colder or hotter cic protein synthesized by the cells the typical temperature range of 40F 4C ribosome system. Certain proteins i. Other extremes are high.

Because tain blood cells from a patients body, alter- extremozymes can catalyze reactions under ation of those cells in one or more high pressure, high temperatures, etc. See industrial processes. See also an essential role in the degradation i. They tend to be more healthy, pro- the ras gene to help signal certain cells to ductive, and uniform than their parents.

A protein factor in the blood serum that ing of plant fats lipids ; the plastid and the is instrumental in the cascade of chemical endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis of fatty reactions involving 17 blood components in acids begins in the plastid, where Ac-CoA the intrinsic pathway that leads to clot for- is rst carboxylated thereby becoming Mal- mation following a cut or other wound to onyl CoA via the enzyme Acetyl-CoA car- body tissue.

Also, a deciency of AHG is boxylase. Fatty acids are abundant fatty acid molecule. Three of the resultant els of saturated fatty acids tend to be solid fatty acid molecules are then chemically at room temperature, and those fats possess- attached to a glycerolphosphate molecule ing the highest levels of unsaturated fatty with the cleaved-off phosphate atom recy- acids tend to be liquid at room temperature. In general, saturated fatty acids vary somewhat with the diet of the acids tend to be more stable resistant to animal i. Fatty acids in bio- i. No natural fat is either totally saturated oilseeds tend to contain an even number of or unsaturated.

When eaten, fats are gener- carbon atoms in their molecular backbone, ally not absorbed directly through the intes- typically between 14 and 24 carbon atoms. They are rst emulsied, then The molecular backbone alkyl chain may hydrolyzed by the lipase enzyme. The com- be saturated no double bonds or it may ponents fatty acids, cholesterol, monoacyl- contain one or more double bonds.

The con- glycerol, phospholipids, etc.

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One product of the pathway lation of Biotechnology The legal frame- is always the energy-rich compound work created by the U. The which divided regulation of biotechnology other products are of many types: alco- among the U. Department of Agriculture, hol, glycerol, and carbon dioxide from the U. Environmental Protection Agency, yeast fermentation of various sugars; butyl alcohol, acetone, lactic acid, and and the U. Food and Drug Administration.

Congress in During , the The Japanese utilize a bacterial fer- U. Environmental Protection Agency mentation process to make the amino EPA proposed that the substances pro- acid, L-glutamic acid, a derivative of duced by plants e. This is a method of manufacture of products such as alco- shutting down a metabolic pathway that is hols, acids, and cheese by the action of producing a product that is no longer needed.

Also known as zymosis. The leav- duction of chemicals; or growth substrates of ening of bread depends on the microbes e. The a solid phase on which to attach themselves. The process dates back to at least 6, B. Func- scientic publications. Three typical deni- tions in iron storage in the spleen. Ferrobacteria Also called iron bacteria. Any 1. A process in which chemical changes of a group of bacteria that oxidize iron as a are brought about in an organic substrate source of energy. The oxidized iron in the through the actions of enzymes elabo- form Fe OH 3 is then deposited in the envi- rated produced by microrganisms.

Fibrinogen itself is used to carry on processes in which the basic the product of a controlled series of zymogen substances needed by the bacterium are activation steps enzymatic cascade triggered manufactured. These bacteria are commonly initially by substances released from body found in seepage waters of coal and iron tissues as a consequence of trauma harm.

Ferrobacte- Fibrinolytic Agents Bloodborne compounds F ria have been active through long periods of that activate brin in order to dissolve blood geologic time. For example, the great Mes- clots. Gospo- Ferrochelatase A mitochondrial enzyme that darowicz and fellow researchers at the Uni- catalyzes the incorporation of iron into the versity of California, San Francisco. Overall, this is a strong textbook and has many positive attributes.

If the corrections to Unit 1 were made and the text included a more racially and gender-balanced focus, then it would be superior to traditional textbooks. One final note: the addition of review questions at the end of each module are great, in theory, but almost all of the multiple choice questions require only simple recall from students. Including questions higher up on Bloom's taxonomy would demonstrate to students that they are expected to synthesize, apply, and otherwise critically think about the material.

The book covers a wide range of content appropriate to a non-majors level biology course or survey introduction; with the exception of a few content areas such as evolution and diversity of non living and lower organisms, Plant diversity and The book covers a wide range of content appropriate to a non-majors level biology course or survey introduction; with the exception of a few content areas such as evolution and diversity of non living and lower organisms, Plant diversity and physiology, and the mammalian sensory system.

For example, the 3 individual chapters covering Non-living organisms and prokaryotes together, Protists, and Fungi in our previous textbook were consolidated into one massive chapter. The same occurred with the plant content. The 5 senses were completely glanced over in the segment off Body systems. On one hand students appreciated have "less" reading outside of class, however, the lack of additional coverage in the textbook may have been a contributing factor to student success in the first year of adoption.

Even with the utilization of the same lecture materials pre and post OER adoption and the same exams being proctored. Students who used the text were under-prepared for the assessments. One could argue depth required in subject matter, specifically in introductory courses, however, across the department, we felt the lack of coverage in these areas was a disservice to our students. Even though we may have covered the content in lecture, they needed to have additional exposure to the content outside of class to increase their retention of the material.

Our fix: We remixed and revised the Openstax Concepts of Biology textbook with chapters from the Majors "Biology" text that were trimmed down, removing concepts we thought were beyond the reasonable limits of an introductory course.

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In the following year, the student success "bounced back" and became comparable to the pre-OER distribution of success. Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased. It is also clearly worded to aid in student understanding. With the exception of Chapter 10 on Biotechnology the content is up to date and worded to focus on the models of previous scientific processes and the "big picture" generalizations, which will aid in the longevity of the text.

As far as Biotechnology goes, that field is rapidly growing due to the advancements in the field, and I could see needing to supplement a paragraph or two within the next 5 years. Text is clearly worded, concepts are focused on major distinctions and terminology is added in a progressive pace, making it easy for students to build upon.

There are also ample examples of concepts which can provide context for student understanding. The pace and focus of the material is consistent throughout subject matter, this provides student with a regular framework in which to access the material. Having used this text in a Revise and Remix model, I can attest to the modularity and ease with which we were able to supplement content in a course and even term specific manner.

The chapters progress on content appropriately, which enables our year long sequence over the span of 3 courses to generally proceed in a linear fashion; with the exception of Unit 6 Ecology being discussed following the unit 4 coverage of plants and plant dynamics. The books interface and navigation has been seamless for a majority of my interactions. The text is written scientifically, without bias, and as a result has no culturally insensitive references. Even then, it is matter of fact and tastefully focused on the concept of immunity.

We have used this text across the entire Biology department for 3 years now, and both students and faculty are happy with it. It is a valuable resource in content matter, accessibility and scale-ability. This book covers most topics addressed in non-major level biology survey courses.

Therefore, I must use the level Therefore, I must use the level version of this text, Openstax Biology for that course. That is unfortunate because much of the Biology textbook is too detailed and technical for a non-major week course. Nevertheless, this book provides clear and accessible text on the subject areas that it covers. Each chapter provides a glossary of key terms and a few review and critical thinking questions. One significant drawback to this book is that wide-ranging and sometimes disparate topics are groups together into a single chapter.

However, some topics probably should not have been broached in this textbook. In sections Yet, neither of the descriptions of these complex processes are supported by images. If it deemed that these processes are too complex for non-major biology courses, then students would be better served by not having the topics covered at all than trying to puzzle out how depolarization works or how sarcomeres shorten in skeletal muscles without an illustration. There is a video embedded within this section that does describe the process but very few students utilize these links.

Fortunately, the immune system is given its own chapter in this book and provides a good basic overview of the components. I have not encountered serious issues in the accuracy or bias of topics that I cover. The brevity makes some topics difficult to understand. Broken links are probably the most significant accuracy issues comes from the extensive use of links to outside learning resources.

Even those that point to resources located on the Openstax site sometimes do not work or are not supported. However, the website has a good Errata section that you can submit errors and broken links to. These appeared to be addressed relatively quickly and editors provide a table in which the status of the reported errors or broken link is available. I have checked this table when I find a link that does not work to see if it has been reported.

As an instructor of non-major biology classes, I am particularly concerned with the take-home messages that students will carry with them long after they leave my classroom. This textbook provides many good examples of concepts and processes that are relevant to non-major biology students. The section on Genetic Engineering Chapter 10, Bioengineering provides a section on the application of genetic engineering and GMOs, a topic that students have many misconceptions about.

Some updates are needed; for example, there is a brief overview of the one-child policy in China, which needs to be updated. The paragraph in the book can be a good introduction that encourages discussion on why this policy changed. However, the brevity of the text means that a lot of concepts are introduced but not explained enough for students to understand their relevance. For example, the process and consequences of eutrophication and ocean acidification could be expanded, and while I believe that my role is fleshing out these topics is critical, these topics are so important and relevant that they should get better coverage in the textbook.

Ocean acidification is not covered in Chapter 21, Conservation and Biodiversity under the heading of Climate Change. One of the chief strengths of this book is that is editable so can be easily updated. The downside is that it is not clear to students who purchase used versions of the hard copy that changes have been made. The Openstax website provides excellent documentation of changes that have been made to the textbook, but instructors must help students understand how this textbook works so that students are not frustrated.

I use a hard copy that is a few years old so I am careful to consult the online version and update my PDF versions on a regular basis. The clarity of the prose is excellent and is written at a level that is appropriate for lower-division undergraduate students. It is very difficult to explain complex terms and concepts to a non-major audience and many of these students do not have strong reading comprehension skills. As I noted above in the Comprehensiveness section, adding a few more illustrations that support the text would be useful.

This book had many contributors, but it is consistent in both layout and prose. That is important because we cover most of the chapters in this book in our non-majors biology series. Importantly, formatting is consistent throughout the book in all versions. The modularity of this books works well for me because it is easy to assign reading by sections. The sections can be read in isolation but it is easy to assign one section in another chapter that will provide context. It is important that if you prefer using a hard copy of the book that you assign reading by section rather than by page number, which has no meaning to online readers and may be incorrect for students whose print version came out later or earlier than your version.

Because we organize our biology series in the same way, this organization works well. The interface of the book works well and I understood how to navigate the online version quickly. Some students have a difficult time negotiating the online version of the book. About half of the students in my classes who do not fully use the book point to their difficulty navigating it. This apparently is because each section e. This should not be a problem as it is easy to move to the previous or next sections by clicking on the navigation buttons.

The search function works well with the caveat that you need to hit the enter button to execute the search. Partial words or phrases are fine as long as they are not misspelled. These are the kinds of tips that students need to understand to fully utilize the book. It is worth the time to show students how to navigate the book rather than assume that they will figure it out.

Some of the images are not crisp enough in the hard copy of the book but they are readable. The photos are generally good quality and informative. The text is well-written and generally error-free. Any errors are easily reportable to the Openstax website. I have not found evidence of culturally insensitive or offensive material in this book.

I would recommend that the book use more examples that help students understand and appreciate the biological significance of the diversity of human traits e. I have used this textbook or the Openstax Biology textbook for several terms. I like these books and students are grateful for access to a free textbook. However, we need to understand how students are using these textbooks - or in many cases, not using them. In classes where I have surveyed textbook utilization, between a third and a half of students do not use the textbook or use it very little.

A few have technical issues and cannot access the book with older computers. This issue appears easily rectified by providing a hard copy of the textbook for a nominal cost, which Openstax has done admirably. We stock this textbook in the college bookstore to make it as accessible as possible.

I also require the use the online Sapling Learning support system to encourage students to engage with the textbook. The problem is that the siren song of free means that most students will not purchase the textbook if they can access it for free, even if they are unwilling or unable to read an onscreen version. There is only so much that we can do in this situation but it is important for students and instructors alike to be aware of it. I was an enthusiastic adopter of this technology and it was not until I surveyed the students that I understood the extent of this problem.

Much of the value of this textbook is virtually ignored by most students, particularly the embedded links to supporting resources. Almost none of my students access these links, even when I tell them how useful they will be to illustrate difficult concepts. In fact, many students automatically google for information much of it incorrect or incomplete rather than use their textbook. If we want students to use these resources, we need to be very clear that 1 the textbook is an important learning resource, and 2 they are accountable for learning the material.

We need to make hard copies available in college bookstores and on reserve at the library. We also must take the time in class to demonstrate how to fully utilize the features of the book. As instructors who were not immersed in technology in our formative years, we often assume that our students are more technically savvy than they are.

Most importantly, we need to help students recognize the kind of learners they are so they can use strategies that increase their engagement with these resources and their success in our classes. This text covers most ideas, however not always fully. Already, within the first 6 chapters, I have noticed many small, yet still important concepts that are not discussed. For instance: Hydrolysis and dehydration reactions are not discussed. The wording is used in a few places, but there is no defining section describing water's role in chemical bonds, which is relevant in many further concepts in the book.

These are crucial concepts necessary to the understanding of following concepts. It is understood that this is a book for non-majors, however, this is not quite comprehensive enough for a college-level non-majors biology course. I am pleased to see a glossary of terms after each chapter. This is very useful for students.

I have not noticed any errors, or blatantly incorrect information. The only small inaccuracy I found is that electrolyes dissolve in water. Salts dissolve in water, releasing electrolytes ions. These do not further dissolve. This textbook is basic enough that the information can remain relevant for many years. Most of this information is general concepts which haven't changed, nor are likely to change for many years. I think the clarity is great. It stays easy to read and comprehend for a non-majors level.

The context they are used in is not enough to derive an understanding of the words. I have noticed no issues in terms of consistency and framework. There is a nice flow to the information. All chapters are well divided into small concept chunks with appropriate subheadings. This makes it easy to direct students to what to read, verses what can be skipped, as well as allowing students to properly chunk notes taken from reading. On the computers and devises I have used, I have noted no problems with interface.

I know that my students are viewing the text in many forms, including tablets and smartphones, from which I have heard of no problems. I feel that there are many references and examples to biological situations, none of which I have noted any insensitivity or offensiveness. Most don't lend themselves to inclusiveness issues. Overall the book is well-done, and a blessing to be able to provide to students for free. I feel it just needs a bit more information added to it to round it out fully, and make it appropriate for a college level biology course.

I was motivated to search for an open-access text for my non-majors class in fall for two reasons. Second, textbooks in all of the Second, textbooks in all of the classes I teach are really recommended supplements to the other materials I make available, not required reading.

This text is quite exhaustive in coverage a stronger word than comprehensive — no major areas of the subject are omitted. This means it contains too much material for a single-semester course. In addition, I think it covers the majority of topics in more depth than is needed for non-majors. These comments need to be put in context. Almost all non-majors texts available in print also include too much breadth and depth. The upside to providing lots of breadth and depth is that the instructor has a lot of material to choose from.

Of course, it is the job of the instructor to guide students to achieving an appropriate level of understanding. And so, for example, the basics of transcription and translation will be the same next year as they are this year. However, Chapter Ten on biotechnology, will need revision and updating, whether by the authors or instructor. One simple strategy to underscore relevance is to include material from newspapers and other reliable!

It is crucial to show non-majors that biology is important to them and to society, and that it moves forward on a truly daily basis. Biology has its own vocabulary and technical terminology. This can sometimes lead to confusion — my favorite example is use of the concept of a theory.

The text certainly uses the language of biology, and does so in an appropriate fashion. Glossaries of terms are included, although I cannot find an index. In addition to diagrams, which are well constructed, there are questions that require some critical and synthetic thought scattered through the text.

The book includes chapter summaries and sample questions multiple choice and short answer, the latter called Free Response. These questions are not as numerous as in most of the print books I am familiar with. The text is organized into six units within which there are multiple chapters.

That said, it does prepare the student for detailed treatments of cellular respiration and photosynthesis to come — if the instructor deems such detailed treatments to be appropriate. The ordering of the Units, and that of chapters within units, does not follow the order I use in my class. For example, I deal with evolution in the first two weeks of the semester, as I believe it to be the lens through which all of biology should be viewed.

However, Units and Chapters can be organized in a way that preserves flow and connectedness as per an instructor's requirements. There are many stories that can be told about biology, and no one story is necessarily better than any other. The text tells a story that is different from mine, and so the organization of my class and the text do not match. The text is easy to use, and includes clear and relevant artwork and video clips.

Specific chapters are easily accessible through the Contents function - an index would be nice I can't find one. Additional on-line resources are available to the instructor, including but not limited to test questions and PowerPoint slides I choose not to use these, but they are just fine. I believe that Concepts of Biology is an excellent text for a non-majors biology class. It is accessible, nicely up-to-date, and covers relevant topics.

And, of course, it is free unless one chooses to make a donation. I provided students in my class with a survey to determine their opinions of the book. This is a disappointingly low number. I am pleased by this level of initiative. I asked about whether the book should be used again. Most students gave replies that I expected, for the most part. The book was judged to be useful and well-connected with my lectures, although more detailed. The majority view was that the text should be recommended in the future, a position with which I agree.

The book has a very easily accessible and complete table of contents. The online book works well in that each chapter title can be clicked on to open a list of the subtitles explaining the topics covered in the sections. The information covered The information covered in the book is well laid out and covers the all material that should be included in a level biology class. The material in the book is relevant to anyone who is alive and curious. The way the book accesses internet information is commendable- making it a very desirable addition to any contemporary students collection.

Updates to links may be an issue as time passes, and inclusion of varying emergent technologies or careers. However, that last part has always been true of science materials. I find the lay out impeccable. It introduces what it is going to talk about then talks about the introduced topics clearly with great graphic support. The fluidity of the writing is rarely found at this level.

The vocabulary appendices at the end of each Chapter make it friendly to all students including ELA. The pattern of Chapter, subtopic, vocabulary, review and questions is consistent and reliable. A great way for new"ish" students to get used to college level reading. For the most part, the text is divided nicely with graphics and career information or internet connections. There were a few areas with large blocks of text, but not many.

The dividing graphics and career information are not disruptive because they highlight subjects that are mentioned in the text. The organizational structure of the book follows a common flow of Biology texts. Those usually help a student comprehend the way the genes separate and recombine during reproduction, thus make for the genetic variances taught. But, besides that, the flow was perfect.

I noticed no interface issues. The internet book worked perfectly and every movie, link and picture worked well. No visible distortions. I noticed two areas where the sentences didn't flow well. One was written poorly, but that is not bad percentage wise, compared to the whole book. The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. Biology is universal and doesn't make reference to any particular cultures except for bacterial cultures, and as science is based on fact, there are no ill placed opinions about said bacteria.

Just perhaps a few less than positive hypotheses. I am thrilled about the availability of such a high quality and timely resource for lower level biology students. It is engaging where sometimes the science can get dry, and relevant for the students because of its direct tie-ins to careers. This text is used for non-majors Biology and I have used it as a textbook replacement for 3 years. It provides a clear and concise survey for the intended audience.

The table of contents allows you to view the sequential topics in each section. The Careers in Action is a real-world application of science for non-majors; this provides them a glimpse into the field of science. Each of the other sections are reinforcement tools for the students after their readings. The Free Response is also a great prompt for class discussions and discussion boards. In some areas, more detail can be added Chapter Body Systems. Text is clear and easy to follow for students and faculty.

The end of chapter glossary is there to provide clarity of technical terms. The text is easy to read whether the PDF, online or enhanced tablet version. The choice of device does not present any issues to the reader. The topics are presented in a logical, clear fashion which is similar to the organization of the course I teach. In the Chapter 16, there could be a bit more information on the Body's Systems; currently, I supplement the areas with other resources. There are not any interface issues I am aware of for myself or my students.

I have used the PDF as well as the enhanced version on a tablet and no issues. This has been a great resource for students at my institution by providing the content needed to successfully exit their General Biology course requirement. For some being able to print from the PDF or have it accessible to them on their mobile devices or even order a bound-printed copy relives varied levels of stress for them. Overall, I found this textbook covers the basic topics and concepts you can find in a classic biology textbook; it also provides information from recent publications pertaining to biomedicine and climate issues which can be interesting to Overall, I found this textbook covers the basic topics and concepts you can find in a classic biology textbook; it also provides information from recent publications pertaining to biomedicine and climate issues which can be interesting to non-major students.

I am planning to use this book next semester, and I think it will be a good textbook for me to outline my lectures, and for students to read relevant chapters before they come to lectures. The online version is especially handy because of the search function, as well as the links to outside information sources. The links to some hand-on modules seem very interesting and will be easily used to develop assignment questions.

This is true for other non-major biology textbooks not open access. I found the textbook to be accurate on the major concepts and current development in many fields of biology. There are many controversial issues in biology that different instructors might find they do not agree with the information provided by this textbook especially those sections to do with taxonomy and phylogeny , but I did not find major conflicts. I do have several minor issues after reading Unit 4,5,6 : Section I guess it depends on whether the authors consider Domain as the lowest or the highest level of taxonomy.

I always consider Domain as the highest level and therefore each group at one of the levels includes groups at the next highest level.

English Dictionaries

I found this paragraph a little confusing. Section Information in this textbook stays relatively up-to-date. Although there are a few places where I think the authors should have provided references for the readers to know where the information is from and how recent the sources are. For example, in chapter Since the phylogeny and classification of Protista is a very controversial topic as the textbook also mentioned , it is important for the readers to know where and when this classification system was developed, and whether there are alternative systems use as most other textbooks are using a system with five Supergroups.

Another similar example is in chapter If the textbook will be updated by authors and other contributors, it is important to know where the current text is based on. Most of the textbook is well written with clear and precise language. However, I do find sometimes the information is too descriptive and not in-depth enough. For example, in the introduction of chapter 20, the textbook provides an example of an ecosystem. It introduces the oak-pine barren as a nutrient-poor, fire frequent ecosystem, and talked about what researchers study in such ecosystems the movement of resources.

The text ends here, and if I were a student who is reading the textbook, I would like to continue to read more information about this ecosystem and how the Karner blue butterfly and wild lupine shown in the pictures have adapted to it, which is a very nice example to show student that not only nutrient rich ecosystems are important, but even ecosystems with restricted resources can support unique biodiversity.

Similarly, in the introduction of chapter 12, the textbook uses a bee and an Echinacea flower as an example to demonstrate a bee and a flower can be related. I assume the authors were suggesting the co-evolution of Echinacea and pollinators and how phylogenetically flowers became diverse, but I am not sure they might be referring to the fact that both of them are in Domain Eukarya , and nowhere could students find answers to this example. Other minor issues: Chapter The last two groups were not very clearly named and I think it is very confusing.

I recommend revise the text to lay out the four traditional groups, and then introduce the two new groups with names indicated. This textbook can be easily divided into sections and used independently. Some of the later chapters, such as the Evolution and Diversity of Life and Animal Structure and Function, do use information from earlier cell and genetics related chapters such as what is ribosomal RNA. But I think in the online version, the search box is very useful for students and instructors to locate the definition of unfamiliar terms. Students should be able to read these later chapters even if the instructor skips the molecular biology and cell biology sections.

This is especially helpful if the instructor is teaching a non-major class not aiming to cover the entire scope of biology, but only focusing on conservation biology, global change biology, etc. The information arrangement in this book follows a structure that is commonly adapted by biology textbooks, especially books for non-majors. It also introduces different foci of biology studies and how it is related to other areas in science.

I think for instructors who may want to skip some chapters to go to a specific topic in biology, this first chapter provides a functional overarching introduction of the book. My non-major class follows the same structure so it works well for me. I mostly used the online version of this textbook to do this review, and I found the links to images and outside websites in this textbook function very well.

One issue I have encountered is that the online version of the textbook mostly uses gradually reduced fonts of titles to distinguish the different levels of information within a chapter, and the difference between these fonts are not very obvious. Sometimes I get confused whether I am reading text pertaining to a new topic, or it is still within the previous section. For example, in section I assume the layout of information is Fungal Diversity Pathogenic Fungi Plant Parasites and Pathogens Animal and Human Parasites and Pathogens Beneficial Fungi But it is very hard to tell while reading the webpage because the fonts of these titles are hard to distinguish.

Another example is in chapter I recommend in addition to gradually reduced fonts, the authors can consider to use other ways such as different colors, shades, italicized fonts or bold letters to better distinguish the information nested within a specific topic. I believe open access is the future of textbooks.

The merit of this textbook is the free access and its flexibility to be modified. And yet it is peer reviewed by many contributors and users. The web based multimedia interface adds a lot of tools that make this an interesting textbook for non-major biology students. Very comprehensive and good glossary and index, as good as any of the many other texts I've seen.

Not sure if index could use some work -- for example, I could not find any reference to respiration, cellular respiration, aerobic respiration; yet, Not sure if index could use some work -- for example, I could not find any reference to respiration, cellular respiration, aerobic respiration; yet, anaerobic respiration is listed.

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One thing that bothers me is Fig 1. For example, Eukarya should list Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista, rather than slime molds, ciliates, flagellates, etc. Content appears to be up-to-date, except for that phylogenetic tree in Ch it's okay that it's the original one from Woese, but there should be an explanation that it's not up-to-date.

I believe necessary updates will be easy to make. Not sure if it's just the font being so small, but it does have a very wordy, slightly tedious flow to it. However, the animations that are built in are very good. The text is done well in regard to smaller reading sections but still has a very wordy feel to it; perhaps a larger font and more visuals would help. My students have used this text with WileyPlus for about two years now and I can't recall one complaint, whereas there were complaints about every expensive text used before that -- and I've been teaching since This book was surprisingly comprehensive.

Never using an open textbook, prior to Concepts of Biology, I had anticipated a truncated and therefore non-comprehensive textbook. However, I believe that all major concepts were covered. I primarily I primarily focused on the microbiology and ecology sections. While the depth of coverage is some sections is lacking, by which I mean things aren't covered ad nauseum, this could easily be supplemented in the classroom. Many microbiology textbooks spend far too much time focusing on every phylogenetic group, while this book chooses not to do so.

I believe this is beneficial to avoid memorization. Focus on specific groups during class time, if you wish to. The content within this textbook is relevant and will be long-lasting, while lacking in the discussion of recent discoveries in each field. Whether this is a strategy by the authors or not, I cannot tell.

This will increase the longevity of the text while putting the pressure on the instructor s to locate and present recent work in the field. Perhaps a small section at the end of each chapter addressing this would be helpful. From what I have read, this book is quite clear. The use of jargon is a necessity in a lot of chapters, but these words are explained within the text in most cases and there is also a section at the end of each chapter for definitions.

Well done. I believe the work within the textbook is consistent, I noticed little in terms of changing framework by chapter or section. I believe the modularity of this book is sufficient. Chapters themselves are modules and each is subdivided into several sections. Based on my reading of this textbook I believe the flow of organization is clear. However, as an instructor, it is possible that I am making connections between materials that would be lost on students.

Until using this textbook in a real-world situation with students, I would be hesitant to make a declaration regarding the flow of each chapter. I did not take time to verify that each hyperlink within the text was accurate, but the links I clicked to access online multi-media seemed to function. I believe this textbook represents a standard biology textbook in terms of the cultural relevance. Evolution is discussed within this textbook, so that may be insensitive to some students based on their religious ideas and relationship to their scientific studies.

The use of multimedia components helps to break up the text and engage students. At the end of each chapter there are questions to assess understanding. This, while necessary in quick review questions, aren't particularly engaging. Luckily, there are "critical thinking problems" within each chapter that can help students think a bit deeper.

Some of them were to "understand Within Chapter 1 the text addresses the difference between theories and hypotheses. Within Chapter 11, the misconceptions regarding these two terms are explained in terms of the theory of evolution. I believe a note within Chapter 1 directing students to Chapter 11, or including the misconceptions in Chapter 1, would be helpful. Snippets of "appropriate jobs" are interjected in each chapter.

This, while a bit unconventional, provides a framework for students asking "when will I use this outside of class? Within this textbook there is not much in the way of actual data to interpret or used as examples. Overall, the text is nicely comprehensive. There are a few areas of weakness, such as the following: The ecology section does not begin with an overview of ecology, which I believe is a weakness.

I would like to see a general description of the I would like to see a general description of the parts of a plant at the beginning of the section on plants Chpt 14 I would like to see answers to the questions "Art Connection" and end of chapter "Review Questions" available, but perhaps that is in the instructor support materials. I have not had a chance to take a look at those yet. The text appears accurate and unbiased, I did not note any inaccuracies. The lack of bias is significant considering that this material touches on many culturally sensitive issues.

The examples used seem quite relevant and applicable. While current and up to date, they should still be relevant for a significant time. The material is clear and concise. At times it was in a format different from what I am accustomed to seeing, which took some adaptation and additional thought. That does not mean it would be a detriment to students, who typically do not have preconceived ideas about content.

Chpt 19, for example, is not in a format which I am familiar with and would take some adjusting to on my part. Sign In Wish List 0 Help. Praise for the previous edition: "This dictionary does a comprehensive job of covering these two dynamic and expansive fields of science This dictionary provides readers with access to the basic vocabulary of modern biotechnology and genetic engineering so that even those with an elementary knowledge of basic biology and biochemistry will be able to follow any developments in this field.

In addition, a number of biochemical terms pertaining to recent advances in medicines for the treatment of viral diseases, mental illness, cholesterol metabolism, plant engineering, and stem cell research have been included as well.

Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Black-and-white line illustrations, tables, and charts. Web sites. Mark L. Steinberg, Ph.